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 Book II

Unit 1


I. Language structure

1. The pupils should be told that their homework has to be checked before they hand it in.

2. She isn't paid anything for overtime.

3. I don't think anybody should be made fun of because of his physical handicap

II Dialogue Study

Background Notes

The ancient Olympics were rather differentfrom the modern Games. There were fewer events, and only free men who spokeGreek could compete, instead of athletes from any country. Also, the games werealways held at Olympia instead of moving around to different sites every time.

One myth says that the guardians of theinfant god Zeus held the first footrace, or that Zeus himself started the Gamesto celebrate his victory over his father Cronus for control of the world.Another tradition states that after the Greek hero Pelops won a chariot raceagainst King Oenomaus to marry Oenomaus's daughter Hippodamia, he establishedthe Games.

Spirit of the Games

Citizens of Ancient Greece lived by a setof ideals, values and morals. These ideals were known as the concept ofolympic spirit and include:

Areti (Virtue)

Amilla (Noble competition)

Timi (Honor)

Elefteria (Freedom)

Irini (Peace)

For an Athlete, only a life with honor wasworth living. An honorable man was a man with self-discipline and respect forhimself, the gods and the lows of the city. He took pride in carrying out hisduty towards his family and his town. He valued moral rewards more than profit.

Questions on the Dialogue

  1. Ask each other questions.
  2. Answer the following questions.

1)     Where did the Ancient Olympic Games originate?

(It originated in Athens.)

2)     Who participated in the Ancient Olympic Games?

(Representatives of severalcity-states and kingdoms from Ancient Greece.)

3)     What is one of the most popular myths about theorigin of the Olympic Games?

(One of the most popular myths says that Heracles and his father Zeusstarted the Games. It was Heracles who first called the Games “Olympic” andestablished the custom of holding them every four years.)

4)     When was the Olympic Gamesabolished?

( It was abolished in 393 AD.)

5)     Was Pierre’s attempt of reviving the Games warmlywelcomed by the people?

(No. Infact, his attempt was not met with enthusiasm. Still, he persisted.)

II. Dialogue

NOTES

1. city-states —(chiefly historical) a city that with its surrounding territory forms anindependent state 城邦(如古希腊的雅典)

2. chariot — atwo-wheeled vehicle drawn by horses, used in ancient racing and warfare

3. The origin of theOlympics is always shrouded in mystery and legend — The origin of the Olympicsis always hidden in mystery andlegend.

4. Heracles — alsoHercules. (classical mythology) a hero noted for his strength; performed 12immense labors to gain immortality赫拉克勒斯(大力神,宙斯之子)

5. Zeus —(Greekmythology) the supreme god of ancient Greek mythology宙斯

6. BC — Before Christ 公元前

  AD — Anno Domini (in the year since the birthof Christ) 公元后

7. The Games reachedtheir zenith in the 6th and 5th centuries BC. — The Games became mostpopular in the 6th and 5th centuries BC.

8. Baron Pierre deCoubertin—(1 January 1863 – 2 September 1937) was a French pedagogue andhistorian, founder of the International Olympic Committee, and consideredfather of the modern Olympic Games. 顾拜旦

 

Expressions in Focus  

1. “it is … who …”— an emphaticstructure  e.g.

1) It is precisely thepeople who create history.

2) It was she who hadbeen wrong.

3) That evening it wasGeorge who left first.

2. “not … until” — used to say the somethingdoes not happen before the time or point mentioned e.g.

1) I did not see Papauntil the evening.

2) Corn planting insome areas was not complete until mid-June.

3) I did not set footin Ireland again until 1905.

3. “must have” — used to assume or guess thatsomeone did something or that something happened e.g.

1) His watch must havestopped. I will go and call him.

2) He must have beenlooked down upon by his contemporaries.

3) He must have arrived by air.

 

C. Retell the conversation in your own words

D. Expressions in Focus

1) It is precisely thepeople who create history.

2) It was she who hadbeen wrong.

3) That evening it was Georgewho left first.

2. “not … until” — used to say the something does not happen before thetime or point mentioned e.g.

1) I did not see Papauntil the evening.

2) Corn planting insome areas was not complete until mid-June.

3) I did not set footin Ireland again until 1905.

3. “must have” — used to assume or guess that someone did something orthat something happened e.g.

1) His watch must havestopped. I will go and call him.

2) He must have beenlooked down upon by his contemporaries.

3) He must have arrived by air.

 

III. Role Play

Act outthe dialogue.

Information card for Role A — You are writing an essay on the Olympic Games, but you know very little about it. Therefore, you ask B, who is an Olympic expert, for help. You ask B a lot of questions about the Games, e.g. one of the most popular myths about its origin, the time when the first Ancient Olympic Games was held, the time when the Olympic Games begin to revive, the time when and the place where the first modern Olympic Games was held, and the organization that s responsible for choosing the host city. In the end, you thank B for his/her help.

 

Information Card for Role B — You are an Olympic expert, and you are helping A with his/her essay on the Olympic Games. A asks you a lot of questions, e.g. one of the most popular myths about its origin, the time when the first Ancient Olympic Games was held, the time when the Olympic Games begin to revive, the time when and the place where the first modern Olympic Games was held, and the organization that s responsible for choosing the host city. You answer all his/her questions patiently. In the end, A thanks you for your help.

 

Retelling

Retell the dialogue in your own words

A is supposed to write an essay on theOlympic Games, and B, an Olympic expert, is helping A with it

They strike up a conversation about theOlympic Games.

 

1. A looks very worried, because he/sheknows very little about the Olympic Games.

2. B comes to help A.

3. A asks B a number of questions about theGames.

4. B tells A all that he/she knows aboutit.

 

Pair Work

Work inpairs and take turns to ask and give answers about the following topics:

1. Thesport that you like best.

Sample: My favorite sport is swimming. It’s good for your lungs and limbs.I enjoy staying in water. Besides, it’s cleaner and safer than sports withphysical contacts.

2. Theevent(s) that you wish to be added into the Olympic Games.

Sample: I wish that Chinese kung fucould be added to the Olympic Games. Now Taekwondo, the kung fu of Koreans has already been part of the Olympic Games, sowhy can’t we add Chinese kung fu? For example, taijiquan is a verygood sport in the Chinese kung fu family.

3. Is exercisingthe best way to stay healthy?

Sample: I think yes. Why not?

IV.Reading

Reading 

Pre-Reading Activity

Football is one of the most popular sportsthroughout the world, and many people are crazy about it. Do you like playingfootball? Do you feel puzzled at the title of the text? Why are there TWO kindsof football? Think about the following questions before you read the text.

1. What are the two kinds of football thetext is going to talk about?

Sample: American football and soccer.

2. Can you introduce some rules of the“football” that you are familiar with?

Sample: For example, you can use your leg, shoulder and chest to touch thefootball, but you cannot touch it with your arms. 

3. Do you think football will be even morepopular in the near future?

Sample: Yes. It’s gaining increasingly popularity in the US and willprobably be more popular.

Background Notes

1.American football—this is one of the most importantsports in the US.The Super Bowl isthe championship game of the National Football League (NFL), the highest levelof professional American football in the United States, culminating a seasonthat begins in the late summer of the previous calendar year. The day on whichthe Super Bowl is played is now considered a real American national holiday,called "Super Bowl Sunday". It is the second-largest day for U.S.food consumption, after Thanksgiving Day. In addition, the Super Bowl hasfrequently been the most-watched American television broadcast of the year.Because of its high viewership, commercial airtime during the Super Bowlbroadcast is the most expensive of the year. Due to the high cost of investingin advertising on the Super Bowl, companies regularly develop their most expensiveadvertisements for this broadcast. As a result, watching and discussing thebroadcast's commercials has become a significant aspect of the event. Inaddition, many popular singers and musicians have performed during the event'spre-game and halftime ceremonies because of the exposure.

2. Rules ofAmerican football--The object of the game is to score more points than theopponent during the allotted time. Points are scored when a team has control ofthe ball but can also be scored when they do not. The team with the ball (theoffense) has 4 tries (downs) to advance at least 10 yards, and can score pointsonce they reach or near the opposite end of the field, called the end zone. Ifthe offense does not advance at least 10 yards during their 4 downs, the teamwithout the ball (the defense) regains control of the ball (called turnover ondowns).

On offense, pointsare scored by advancing the ball into the opponent's end zone for a touchdown(worth six points), or by kicking the ball from the playing field through theraised vertical posts (the goal posts) in the back of that end zone for a fieldgoal (worth three points). After scoring a touchdown, the offense is given oneadditional attempt to score. These attempts are termed point after touchdown(PAT) and are used to score 1 or 2 points as follows:

  • The offense may attempt a field goal kick which is worth 1 point.
  • The offense may attempt to re-advance the ball into the opponent's end zone for a two-point conversion worth 2 points.

While on defense,the defense attempts to prevent the offense from advancing the ball andscoring. If an offensive player loses the ball during play (a fumble) or theball is caught by a defensive player while still in the air (an interception),the defense may attempt to run into the offense's end zone for a touchdown. Thedefense may also score points by tackling the ball carrier in the offense's ownend zone, called a safety (worth two points).

 

TEXT

NOTES

1. football fans— those who are very enthusiastic and greatly interested in football. Fan isthe short form for fanatic, a person with extreme enthusiasm inreligion, politics, etc. Other examples,

a movie fan, a Beijingopera fan

2. luxurious—[adj.] If you describe something asluxurious, you mean that it is very comfortable and expensive. E.g.:

She had come to enjoy Roberto'sluxurious life-style.

3. college final — Thefinal football game between two leading college teams that decides the winnerof the whole series of intercollegiate games 大学足球决赛.

4. the Rose Bowl atPasedena /pæsə’di:nə/, California — This is the stadium where thecollege final takes place. Bowl in this context refers to the stadium,which is in the shape of a bowl. The Rose Bowl has a seating capacity of over100,000. Pasedena is a residential city about 16 kilometres north of LosAngeles.

5. tremor—a smallearthquake.

6. brutal —cruel andviolent.

    E.g.: He was the victim of a very brutalmurder.

7. helmet—a hat madeof a strong material which you wear to protect your head.

8. visor —a movablepart of a helmet which can be pulled down to protect a person's eyes or face.

9. jersey—a shirtmade of soft material, worn by players of sports such as football and rugby.</sp