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Book II

Unit 3


I. Description of LSP

LSP I
Seeking and giving clarification

LSP II
1. Expressing one’s opinion

2. Arguing

LSPIII

Expressing possibility

LSPIV

1.Expressing impossibility

2. Expressing strong probability

LSP V

1.Expressing desire

2.Making a suggestion

Preparatory Questions

Directions: Recastthe following sentences using the following phrases:

1. “would have liked to (do)”

Notice:would have liked to (do)isusedwith the first person to express the speaker’s wish that was not fulfilled.

1) I intendedto go skating with you yesterday but I couldn’t because my mother didn’t letme.

(Response:I wouldhave liked to go skating with you yesterday, but my motherdidn’let me.)

2) I meant tosit in on Professor Wang’s class this morning but I didn’t because I had animportant meeting to attend.

(Response:I wouldhave liked to sit in on Professor Wang’s class this morning,but I had an important meeting to attend.)

3) I intendedto take part in the basketball match yesterday afternoon but I couldn’t

because I hada bad fall yesterday morning.

(Response: I would have liked to take part in thebasketball match yesterday afternoon, but I had a bad fall yesterday morning.)

4) I plannedto lend you my cassette recorder, but I didn’t, because it was out of order.

(Response:I wouldhave liked to lend you my cassette recorder, but it was out of

order.)

2.  should/ought to +perfect infinitive

Notice:should/ought to +perfect infinitive, indicating a past obligation that was not fulfilled

1) Theexhibition was a good one. All of us visited it except John.

(Response:: John should/ought to have come withus.)

2) We alllearned a lot from the lecture, but Li didn’t attend it.

(Response:: Li oughtto/shouldhave attended the lecture.)

3) Theengineer went to the research institute without an umbrella and was caught inthe

rain.

(Response:: The engineer oughtto/shouldhave taken an umbrella with him.)

4) Theybought a book for Mary but she didn’t like it.

(Response:: They oughtn’tto/shouldn’thave bought the book for Mary.) 


3. needn’t+ perfect infinitive

Notice: needn’t +perfect infinitive, indicating something that was unnecessarily done in thepast

1) I wrote asummary in more than five hundred words. But the teacher only asked for

200 words.

(Response:: I needn’thave written such a long summary.)

2) Linanswered all the ten questions in the test paper. But we were only required to

answer eightof them.

(Response:: Lin needn’thave answered all the ten questions in the test paper.)

3) Mary wentto the station an hour before the train started.

(Response:: Mary needn’thave gone to the station so early.)

4) Yaocarried all the parcels home herself. She didn’t know they would deliver themif

she askedthem.)

(Response:: Yao needn’thave carried all the parcels home herself. They would have

deliveredthem if she had asked them.)

 

4. may/might +perfectinfinitive

Notice: may/might +perfectinfinitive, indicating speculations about past actions

1) Where isSusan? I want to go to the canteen with her.

(Response:: She may/might have gone therealready.)

2) It’s afortnight since Sun went to the South and we haven’t got a word from him. I

wonder ifhe’s forgotten us all.

(Response:: He may/might have been verybusy with his work there.)

3) Sid toldme he’d let me have the library book after he’d finished with it. It’s a week

since he saidthat and he still hasn’t given me the book.

(Response:: He may/might have returned thebook to the library. // He may/ mightnot

have finished reading it yet.)

4) I’ve beenlooking for my bicycle key for three days, and it’s still nowhere to be found.

(Response:: You may/might have lost it.)

 

5. can’t/couldn’t +perfect infinitive,

Notice: can’t/couldn’t +perfect infinitive, indicating negative deduction about past actions

The firstpart of the response can be given to the students as a prompt.

1) Where ismy typewriter? Someone must have stolen it last night.

(Response:: It was here a moment ago. It couldn’thave been stolen last night.)

2) Keithought to be here now. Perhaps he’s lost his way.

(Response:: I told him how to come and I even drew him a map. He can’t have lost his

way.)

3) Whobrought the refrigerator upstairs? Perhaps it was Tim.

(Response:: Tim’s not that strong. He couldn’thave brought it by himself.)

4) A mananswered the phone. I suppose it was her husband.

(Response:: But her husband hasn’t come back from abroad yet. It couldn’t have been

her husband.)

 

6. must +perfect infinitive

Notice: must +perfect infinitive, indicating affirmative deduction about past actions

1) The filmhe saw last night was wonderful.

(Response:: He musthave enjoyed seeing it.)

2) He lookstired, doesn’t he?

(Response:: He musthave worked hard. / He must have stayed up late last night.)

3) Thechildren were making a lot of noise until five minutes ago. Now it is so quiet.

(Response:: The children musthave gone away.)

4) James haschecked all the figures twice over, but he can’t get the correct answer.

(Response:: James musthave made a mistake somewhere.)

 

7. may/might as well

Notice: may/might as well,used with the second person pronoun to express the speaker’s

suggestion(s)

1) I am soexhausted after work.

(Response:: You may/mightas well go to sleep.)

2) I’m notfeeling well. I think I’ve got a cold.

(Response:: Being so weak, you may/mightas well see a doctor.)

3) It is toohot for Karen and me to go for a picnic.

(Response:: Why don’t you change it to another day? You may/might as well go to a

movie today.)

4) Nick won’ttake up the additional work. He just wants to do his part.

(Response:: You may/mightas well ask Lucy to do it. To get ahead on her job,she is

willing to trynew things.)


LSP I

Cues:

 

Wish

fact

1

sign up for the sports meeting

sprain (my) ankle

2

take part in the singing contest

lose (my) voice

3

act in the English play

get nervous easily on the stage

 

A.Listening to the recording(本部分请录音)

A: Everybody signed up for the sports meeting, but (I didn’t see your name.)

B: I didn’t sign up.

A: (Why not?)

B: I would have liked to, but I sprained my ankle.

 

B.Substitution practice

C.Variations based on the given cues

 

Wish

fact

1

go to the concert not have a ticket

go to the concert not have a ticket

2

go swimming not feel well

go swimming not feel well

3

go skating have a bad fall

go skating have a bad fall

 

LSP II (本部分请录音)

Cues:

 

Result

Obligation

Absence of obligation

1.

fail in oral English test again

have more oral practice

learn all the dialogues in the

textbook by heart

2.

answer only half the questions

in the written quiz

answer the questions briefly

and write faster

answer half of the questions in

great detail

 

A.Listening to the recording(本部分请录音)

A: (点击显示Lin failed in her oral English test again.)

B: She should/ought to have had more oral practice all through the term.

A: (点击显示She learnt all the dialogues in the textbook by heart,though.)

B: But that’s no use. Asa matter of fact, she needn’t have done that.

B.Substitution practice

C. Morecues for practice

Result

Obligation

Absence of obligation

fail in the written exam

work hard at his lessons

learn all the grammar rules by

heart

be not allowed to enter the

research institute

bring his identification card

with him

show his medical card to the

guard at the gate

LSP III (本部分请录音)

Cues:

 

What was planned

What was possible

1.

take me to the public library

go without you

2.

discuss our research work with me

go to the laboratory

A.Listening to the recording(本部分请录音)

A: I wonder where Zhang can be.

B: (Did you have an appointment with him?

A: Yes. He said he’d meet me at half past eight and take me to the publiclibrary.

(It’s about a quarter to nine now.

B: He may/might have gone without you.

A: (Maybe, buthe ought to have told me so.)

B.Substitution practice

C. Morecues for practice

What was planned

What was possible

go to one of the classes with me

go to the class by himself

get this book from me

borrow one from someone else

go to meet Professor Priestley at the airport with me

forget the appointment

3月5日

LSP IV (本部分请录音)

Cues:

 

Present whereabouts

Things in hand

Probable whereabouts

1.

neither in the gym nor in the library

a tape

language lab

2.

neither in the staff room nor in the department office

a pile of handouts

lecture hall

A. Listening to the recording(本部分请录音)

A: Is Liu in the gym?

B: (No, I don’t think so.)

A: Can/Could she have gone to the library?

B: No, she can’t/couldn’t have gone there. (I just saw her going out with a tape in her hand.)

A: In that case, she must have gone to the language lab.

 

B.Substitution practice

C. Morecues for practice

Present whereabouts

Things in hand

Probable whereabouts

neither in the room nor in the classroom

a basketball

gym

neither in the office nor at home

two concert tickets

concert hall

neither in the canteen nor in the dorm

two thermos flasks

boiler house

 

LSP V (本部分请录音)

Cues:

 

Situation

Intention

Suggestion

1.

very late

catch the last bus

use my bike

2.

look like rain

get home before rain

take my umbrella along

3.

have to attend a meeting

not be late

take the Underground

 

A. Listening to therecording(本部分请录音)

A: (It’s getting very late. I must be off.)

B: (Oh, I didn’t realize it was so late.)

A: I hope I’ll be able to catch the last bus home.

B: (Why don’t you use my bike?) You might as well.(or, You may/might as well use my bike. The last bus might have gone.)

B. Substitution practice

II Dialogue Study

Questions on the Dialogue

  1. Ask each other questions.
  2. Answer the following questions.

1). Why is London no longer a city full of fog?

(Becausesince the Clean Air Act was enforced in 1956, the air quality is much better.)

2). What is the cause of air and water pollution in the city where thespeaker A lives?  

(The old factories that wereestablished long ago areusually not equipped with pollution control devices.)

3). What problem does the car bring?

(It brings noise pollution whenmotorists blow theirhorns whenever they like. )

4). What should be done to bring pollution completely under control?

(We should make stricter laws andenforce them. We should also raise people’s awareness of pollution.)

5). Do you think that environmental pollution in China has beeneffectively reduced? If so, please cite some facts or examples.

(Open question,无需答案)


II. Dialogue

NOTES 

1. It must be terrible living there. — Living there must be terrible. The introductory it is a formal subject, whereas the -ing participle living isthe real subject. Another example,

It isgreat fun boating on the lake.

2. the Clean Air Act —This was the result of the recommendations made by the Beaver Committee whichwas set up to inquire into the question of urban pollution in Britain. The committeewas so named because its chairman was Sir Hugh Beaver.

3. the Thames /temz/ is swarmingwith fish —the River Thames is full of fish that move about busily. The names of riversare preceded by the definite article the,e.g., the Yangzi River, the Yellow River, the Hudson River, the RiverMississippi.

4.treatment devices — devices used to treat smoke,dust, and water pollution 治理三废设备

5. more and morepeople have come to know how harmful... — more and more people begin to knowhow harmful ... The infinitive after the verb come expresses an action that takes place gradually over some time.Another example,

After working with Mrs. Brown, whoappeared quite hard-hearted, in the same office for many years, I’ve come to see that she has a heart ofgold.

6. make stricter lawsto that effect — make stricter lawswith the intention to forbid car horns blowing in the streets. The word effect refers to what B says in thepreceding line “it’s against the law to blow car horns in any street in town.”

 

Expressions in Focus  (点击对话中相应单词,即可显示以下对应注释

1. “do away with...”— terminate, get rid of;abolish sth. e.g.

1) Why not do away withall the junk in your room? It is getting more and more untidy!

2) How could they do away with a lovely old buildinglike that and put a car park there instead?

3) These ridiculous rules and regulationsshould have been done away with years ago.

2. “add to…” — increase or have an increasedeffect;

“add sth. to sth.” — put sth. together with sth. else so as toincrease  e.g.

1) His words did nothingbut added to my anger.

2) The bad weather onlyadded to our difficulties.  

3) Teachers should exercise their imagination and add art to theirteaching.

3. “bring…under control” — subdue or mastersth.  e.g.

1) To bring the noisychildren under control, the teachers told them the story of “Buzzy Bees”.

2) Hundreds of firemen have brought awildfire spread over nine square kilometers of land under control afterbattling to put out the flames for two days.

3) The Prime Minister said yesterday that thegovernment is making all efforts to bring the high inflation under control.

 

Retelling

Sample outline forretelling

B, a student from England, is talking to A about the pollution problem.

1. B tells A about London at present: the steps that have been taken bythe government and

the change that has taken place.

2. A and B talk about the pollution problem in China:

1) air pollution in factory zones;

2) noise pollution in city streets;

3) A tells B that theChinese government has taken some measures to control pollution.


III. Role-play

More About Pollution Control

Situation:

Dave and Zhao have talked about the importance of environmental protection andthe measures taken to cut down smoke and dust from factories and to reduce streetnoise. Now they go on talking about land and water pollution and soil erosionin China.

Information about land and water pollution and soil erosion

Cause

Result

1. Water pollution: a lot of harmful effluents from factories poured into the rivers

2. Land pollution: little control over the use of pesticides and chemical fertilizers

3. Soil erosion: careless and indiscriminate felling of trees

1. drinking water polluted; crop affected

2. high toxic residue in vegetables and grain; harm done to soil

3. large number of forests destroyed; and soil carried away by wind and rain, leaving barren land

 Roles:

Dave — asking questions about water pollution, land pollution and soil erosionin China

Zhao — telling Dave what sheknows about water pollution, land pollution and soil erosion in China

 

Some phrases and sentence framesyou might use:

Expressingcauses and results/effects of pollution

contributeto the pollution problem                             beharmful/detrimental to …

generatepollutants                             cause damage to …

leadto an increase in air pollution                              result in …

causea rise in …                                   pose health risks to …

 

Expressinga completed action, an obligation or an unfulfilled obligation

The government has taken measures to …

Attempts have been made to …

… should be prohibited.

We should make laws to stop …

Factories should (not) have …

Drastic measures should be taken to …

 

Sample role cards:

Role card 1 — You are Dave. You ask Zhao why you must drink boiled water in China. You

were used to drinking tap water at home. You ask about the problem of water pollution in

China. You are also interested in soil erosion and the effect of pesticides and chemical fertilizers on the soil in rural areas. After hearing Zhao’s answers to your questions, you express some of your opinions, too.

 

Role card 2 — You are Zhao. Dave has some questions concerning water pollution, land

pollution and soil erosion to ask you. Tell him the facts and express your own opinions as to

what should (not) have been done and what could (not) have been done.

 

NOTES

1. surroundings — the conditions, scenery, etc. around a person, placeor thing; environment. The word “surrounding”, however, is generally used as anadjective, e.g.,

       They make regular checks on the surrounding areas for pollutionlevels. 

2. The adjective“dirty” and the noun “poison” are used as verbs here, which respectively mean“to make…dirty” and “to put poison in” or “to cause poisoning”.

3. junk — things that are considered as useless or of little value. 

IVReading

Reading 

Pre-Reading Activity

The environmental pollution on our planet has caused undesirable change andharmfully affected health, survival and activities of humans and other livingorganisms. Now, please think about the following questions before you readthe text.

1. What are themajor causes of environmental pollution?

Sample: Developmentof industry and Urbanization.

2. Is the placewhere you live polluted or even seriously polluted? If so, describe to your partner.

3.What can we do to reduce environmental pollution?

Sample: We should curb the sewage andsmoke from factories, perform garbage classification and recycle wastes.

Background Notes

Particle Pollution (PM10) and (PM2.5)

1. Particle pollution (also known as"particulate matter") in the air includes a mixture of solids andliquid droplets. Some particles are emitted directly; others are formed in theatmosphere when other pollutants react. Particles come in a wide range ofsizes. Those less than 10 micrometers in diameter (PM10) are so small that theycan get into the lungs, potentially causing serious health problems. Tenmicrometers is smaller than the width of a single human hair.

Fine particles (PM2.5). Particles less than2.5 micrometers in diameter are called "fine" particles. Theseparticles are so small they can be detected only with an electron microscope.Sources of fine particles include all types of combustion, including motorvehicles, power plants, residential wood burning, forest fires, agriculturalburning, and some industrial processes.

Coarse dust particles. Particles between2.5 and 10 micrometers in diameter are referred to as "coarse."Sources of coarse particles include crushing or grinding operations, and duststirred up by vehicles traveling on roads.

2. fog and haze 雾霾

Fog and haze differ in that fog is a thick,opaque effect that lasts a short time, while haze is a thin, translucent effectthat lasts a long time.

Fog

Whether created by nature or machine, fogconsists of liquid droplets suspended in the